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UCSB Details of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Discussion

UCSB Details of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Discussion

Question Description

I’m working on a biology question and need guidance to help me understand better.

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1.HIV, first identified in 1981 and also known as the human immunodeficiency virus, is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infections causing a compromised immune system in the host that leaves them vulnerable to other infections and diseases. HIV transmission occurs when certain body fluids (blood, semen, vaginal fluids, breast milk) of an HIV-positive person enter the bloodstream of an HIV-negative person through the mucous membrane, found in the mouth, vagina, rectum, or tip of the penis, through open cuts and sores, or through injection. HIV is not spread by saliva, tears, or sweat that aren’t mixed with the blood of an HIV-positive person. Within 2-4 weeks after exposure to HIV, approximately 66% of people will develop flu-like symptoms including night sweats, chills, sore throat, fever, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, etc, (CDC, 2020). After the first stage ends, the next stage, chronic HIV infection, is when HIV transmission is possible if viral count is detectable in the host. However, it is possible to prevent the spread of HIV to their sexual partner(s) if the person takes HIV medicine as often as prescribed and keeps their viral count undetectable. Unfortunately, there is no cure yet for HIV.

Left untreated, HIV can develop into AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), the late stage of HIV infection. This distinction occurs when “the number of their CD4 cells falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (200 cells/mm3)” or “when the person develops one or more opportunistic infections regardless of their CD4 count” (HIV.gov, 2020). Symptoms of AIDS include extreme fatigue, depression, rapid weight loss, prolonged swelling of lymph glands, recurring fever, night sweats, etc. Without medication, people with AIDS will survive for as long as three years, one year if they suffer from opportunistic infection. The earlier the HIV-positive person takes HIV medication, the better their chances of survival and the lower their chances of transmitting HIV. However, people with AIDS still benefit from taking HIV medication.

CDC. (2020, November 3). About HIV/AIDS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html

HIV.gov. (2020, June 5). What are HIV and AIDS? HIV.gov. https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/about-hiv-…

  1. An immune system disorder/disease/infection that is more prevalent among children is streptococcus tonsillitis, or more known as strep throat. According to some peer-reviewed journals, it is emphasized that strep throat is one of the most common and prevalent acute human infections worldwide with over 600 million cases each year (Dan et al. 2019). Additionally, it is a communicable disease because it can be spread from person-to-person. Strep throat is specifically a bacterial infection that attacks and enters through the respiratory tract (especially the throat). The bacteria is spread through any means of droplets when someone cough, sneezes, shares food and/or drinks, or by touching an item then touching any portal of entry afterwards. Upper portions of portals of entry may include nose, mouth, and respiratory tract. Moreover, there are also different groups and types of strep throat such as Group C, Group G, and non-Group A (Thai et al. 2017). However, all groups of strep throat have similar symptoms, which include fever, swollen tonsils, enlarged cervical lymph nodes, extreme throat pain/sore throat, painful swallowing, and an absence of a cough warrant (Dan et al. 2019). Furthermore, the only treatment for strep throat is antibodies, whether they are produced naturally by the individual’s body (active immunity) or given by a physician via vaccination (passive immunity) (Dan et al. 2019). Medications like antibiotics and injections may also be provided in order treat strep throat as well (Thai et al. 2017). Overall though, all types of treatments for strep throat (antibodies, antibiotics, and etcetera) fall under a category called antibody-mediated immunity (infections treated by antibodies).

Citations

Dan, Jennifer M., et al. “Recurrent Group AStreptococcustonsillitis Is an Immunosusceptibility Disease Involving Antibody Deficiency and Aberrant TFHcells.” Science Translational Medicine, vol. 11, no. 478, 6 Feb. 2019, doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aau3776.

Thai, Thuy N, et al. “Signs and Symptoms of Group A versus Non-Group A Strep Throat: A Meta-Analysis.” Family Practice, vol. 35, no. 3, 13 Oct. 2017, pp. 231–238., doi:10.1093/fampra/cmx072.

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