I’m working on a nursing discussion question and need an explanation to help me understand better.
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Health Promotion & Middle-Age Adults.Module 7
Case # 2
Health Promotion & Middle-Age Adults
Middle-age adult generally starts from end of youth age, age 35, to midlife; age 55 (Patrick et al., 2020). This stage sometimes is commonly between age 40 – 60, and it is a lifespan between old age and young adulthood. This developmental stage has significant individual differences. Physical developmental changes include the beginnings of gray hair, hair loss, baldness, and wrinkles. Gray and hair loss begin when hair follicles gradually stop producing melanin and new hair. Wrinkles develop when skin continues to dry out, eat poor diets, and be exposed to sunlight and smoke (Youn et al. 2020). Individuals lose muscles and strengths with advancing in age: sarcopenia. This problem can cause the lungs to fail to expand fully, hence increasing carbon dioxide in the blood.
Other biological changes relate to vision: dry eye syndrome, a drop in scotopic sensitivity, presbyopia, and floaters. These individuals develop hearing problems and become more vulnerable to heart-related diseases, especially atherosclerosis due to narrowed arteries, smoking, stress, genetic history, poor hygiene, and alcoholism. Health complications include hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cancer, sleep problems, and digestive issues like heartburn. These individuals develop weak bones vulnerable to fracture (osteoporosis), dehydration issues, and constipation (Edelman & Mandle, 2019). Women’s fertility weakens, causing menses cessation (menopause), where the reduced estrogen level was leading to reduced breast size and public hair loss. They can encounter acid indigestion with increased belching due to decreased hydrochloric acid caused by reduced metabolism, initiating less enzyme production (Edelman & Mandle, 2019).
When selecting contraceptive methods, young adults should adhere to health education strategies that assist in guaranteeing that individuals receive health information regarding their health risks. Young women should seek health evaluation history and planning of laboratory tests and gynecological examinations that provide a plan for various birth control options. These assessments provide the most appropriate contraceptive prescription while considering individual health risks. Only those health tests should decide the contraceptive method rather than religious, discomforts, and personal beliefs, which are not scientifically proven.
Students can develop a smoking cessation plan by assisting the client in committing to quit smoking. First, the client must set a specific date to quit smoking and be strategic. The client has to identify smoking triggers and take alternatives like chewing row carrots to stop tobacco cravings. This helps in beating the triggers. The client should avoid areas where people are taking cigarettes, channels with tobacco adverts, and advertising campaigns that lure people due to different flavors and attractive packaging. Students must ensure that the client understands the health complications caused by smoking.
Poverty has severe effects on older adults. About 6.4 million older Americans live below $11900 annually, a federal poverty level (Youn et al. 2020). Women are in poverty due to declining health, withdrawing from the workforce to take care of other family members, and widowhood. Poverty is causing loneliness and depression and forces older adults to suffer from substance abuse (Youn et al. 2020). Some become homeless, experience increased food insecurities, and fail to finance health insurance. The rising cost of living makes life difficult for older adults hence reducing their lifespan.
CDC. (2021). Sexual Assault Awareness. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 26 April 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/injury/features/sexual-violence/index.html.
Edelman, C., & Mandle, C. L. (2018). Health promotion throughout the lifespan (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. Chapters 22, 23, 24, & 25
Fenstermacher, K., & Hudson, B. T. (2020). Practice guidelines for family nurse practitioners.
Patrick, M. E., Berglund, P. A., Joshi, S., & Bray, B. C. (2020). A latent class analysis of heavy substance use in young adulthood impacts physical, cognitive, and mental health outcomes in middle age: drug and alcohol dependence, 212, 108018.
Williams, S., Phillips, J., & Koyama, K. (2018). Nurse Advocacy: Adopting health in all policies approach. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 23(3).
Youn, H. M., Lee, H. J., Lee, D. W., & Park, E. C. (2020). The impact of poverty transitions on frailty among older adults in South Korea: findings from the Korean longitudinal study of aging. BMC geriatrics, 20, 1-10.