I’m working on a psychology writing question and need an explanation to help me study.
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two scholarly reference
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Research has found working memory (WM) is utilized in declarative learning. Declarative learning is the presentation of facts and knowledge that needs to be internalized. The information process of working memory takes these facts and knowledge to encode, manipulate, connect and expand the information into meaningful chunks that are remembered (Spencer, 2020). That is, WM is a process that is goal-directed and maintained and manipulates information when needed over a short duration. These remembered facts are stored in long-term memory. Long-term memory is the storage of information that is stored for an individual’s lifespan (Bestue, Martinez, Gomez-Marin, Gea, & Cami, 2020). The difference between both memory functions is how information is processed. WM is goal-directed and would likely manipulate information that is valuable in order to be stored in LTM. Thus, the memory stores are recalled through external cues or recalled when needed. The point is that the interaction between the two is not dependent on each other; rather, they work together to process the information needed for the task or performance at hand.
In mathematical instruction, working memory is often utilized during math performance tasks (Cragg, Richardson, Hubber, Keeblee, & Gilmore, 2017), especially in word problems at the algebra level. A study found that even though separate training of working memory for a group of students did not improve their math achievement when compared to an equal-grouped of students not receiving such training. This suggests that isolation of WM training is not advantageous. Cragg et al. (2017) suggest that during the mathematical performance, WM mechanisms are naturally apparent and will work through the information since it has a goal-directed orientation to perform a task (Spencer, 2020). Consequently, given the interrelation between WM and LTM, goal-directed performance is often remembered more than passive related performance. So, the students are storing such performance in LTM.
Bestue, D., Martinez, L. M., Gomez-Marin, A., Gea, M. A., & Cami, J. (2020). Long-term memory of real-world episodes is independent of recency effects: magic tricks as ecological tasks. Heliyon, 6(10). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC75679…
Cragg, L., Richardson, S., Hubber, P. J., Keeblee, S., & Gilmore, C. (2017). When is working memory important for arithmetic? The impact of strategy and age. PLos One, 12(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188693
Spencer, J. P. (2020). The Development of Working Memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26(6), 545-553. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC75679…